GIT Illustrated Cheatsheet

GIT Model

Object & SHA1

  • Each object has a type, a size and a content

  • Each object is identified by a 40-digit SHA1 hash of attributes
    • 6ff87c4664981e4397625791c8ea3bbb5f2279a3
  • Each SHA1 can be shortened to the first digits
    • 6ff87c4664981e4397625
    • 6ff87c4
  • Object type can be blob, tree, commit or tag


  • Used to store file data
  • Same content = same SHA1 = same blob
  • See it as a file


  • Associate names to blobs and other trees
  • See it as a directory


  • Used to snapshot a tree state

  • Has tree, parent(s), author, commiter and comment attributes

  • Not the same as SVN ones:
    • SVN store diffs
    • GIT store full state


  • Reference an object

  • Has object, type, tagger and comment attributes.

  • Not used for lightweight tags
    • Simple pointer on a commit (like branches)


  • A branch is simply a pointer to a certain commit.
  • A branch is not aa GIT object (no SHA1)

Basic operations


Set your name and email:

$ git config --global "Me"
$ git config --global ""

Display your config:

$ git config --global
$ git config --local  # in a repository


Stage your changes:

# Add to index / stage
$ git add file.txt

# Add all modified and new files (tracked or not) to index
$ git add -A

# Partial staging
$ git add -p file.txt


Create a commit into the current branch:

# Commit from index
$ git commit

# Commit from tracked file list
$ git commit file1.txt file2.txt

# All modified tracked files
$ git commit -a

# Commit from pattern
$ git commit **/*.py

See your repository

See the current status:

$ git status

Retrieve your history:

# Log intégral
$ git log

# 5 dernier commits
$ git log -5

# Diff between two branches
$ git log origin/master..master


Discard your changes for later:

# Create a stash
$ git stash

# list stashes
$ git stash list

# Apply a stash
$ git stash apply

# Apply a stash and drop it
$ git stash pop

# Clear your stashes
$ git stash clear


Revert back changes:

# Reverse commit
$ git revert {SHA1}

# Amend commit
$ git commit --amend

# Uncommit
$ git reset --mixed HEAD file

# Discard changes
$ git checkout file

# Reset branch to a given state
$ git reset --hard ref

Branching and merging

Create a branch

$ git branch feature     # Create the branch
$ git checkout feature   # Switch to the new branch
# or in a single command
$ git checkout -b feature

Branche diverging

Branches diverge when they have different commits


Create a merge commit and keep your branch history:

$ git merge feature


Re-apply your commits and keeps your history linear:

$ git rebase master
# or interactive version
$ git rebase -i master

Cherry Pick

Pick a commit an apply it in the current branch as a new commit:

$ git cherry-pick {SHA1}

Working with remote repositories

  • It’s only branches

  • Repository synchronization operations:

    $ git fetch
    $ git push
    $ git pull  # fetch + merge
    $ git pull --rebase  # fetch + rebase

Add a remote

git remote add origin git://somewhere.git
git fetch

Diverging with remote

It’s just more branches !

Sample workflows



Tune your ~/.gitconfig for comfort !

   st = status
   ci = commit
   co = checkout
   br = branch
   amend = commit --amend
   rlog = log --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --graph --decorate
   plog = log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset -%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset' --abbrev-commit --date=relative
   unadd = reset --mixed HEAD
   uncommit = reset --soft HEAD^
   branch = auto
   diff = auto
   interactive = auto
   status = auto

Visual Tools

IDE Integration